Functions of your Studies Participants
The characteristics of the 102,216 participants are shown in Table 1 , and in Tables S2 and S3 in the Supplementary Appendix. Mean sodium excretion was estimated to be 4.93±1.73 g, and mean potassium excretion was estimated to be 2.12±0.60 g, with higher excretion in men than in women (P<0.001 for sodium and potassium).
Models from Sodium and Potassium Removal
Observed excretion from accelerated day urine specimen and you will projected “usual” removal (shortly after variations having regression dilution bias) are given. Getting seen excretion, the fresh indicate (±SD) sodium removal is actually cuatro.93±step one.73 g every single day; step three.3% off players had sodium removal from below 2.31 grams per day, and you may 0.6% away from participants got sodium excretion out of less than step 1.50 grams a-day. To have estimated common removal, the brand new indicate salt removal is actually cuatro.90±step one.17 grams each day; 0.2% of professionals got salt removal from lower than 2.31 grams every day, and you can none got sodium excretion out-of less than 1.50 g just about every day.
Overall, 43.5% of the population had an estimated sodium excretion of more than 5 g per day, 45.9% between 3 and 5 g per day, and 10.6% less than 3 g per day (3.3% had an excretion <2.3 g per day, and 0.6% <1.5 g per day). After adjustment for regression dilution bias, 2.1% of participants had an estimated sodium excretion of less than 3 g per day, and only 0.2% had excretion of less than 2.3 g per day ( Figure 1A ). Overall, 7.9% of participants had an estimated potassium excretion of more than 3 g per day ( Figure 1B ).
Estimated sodium excretion was higher in rural areas than in urban areas (P<0.001), whereas estimated potassium excretion was higher in urban areas (P<0.001) (Tables S2 and S3 in the Supplementary Appendix). Per capita gross national income was inversely associated with estimated sodium excretion and positively associated with estimated potassium excretion (P<0.001 for trends). Mean estimated sodium excretion ranged from 3.78 g per day in Malaysia to 5.59 g per day in China. Mean estimated potassium excretion ranged from 1.70 g per day in South Asia (Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan) to 2.46 g per day in Canada and Europe (Poland and Sweden).
Urinary Salt Removal and you will Blood pressure level
Changes in hypertension are offered having salt removal regarding smaller than just step 3 g a-day, excretion away from three to five g each day, and you may removal of greater than 5 grams a day. Individuals with really reduced otherwise very high salt removal are included in the shape. Inside the Asia, 218 individuals that have excretion away from less than dos grams every single day was as part of the group that have excretion away from dos.00 in order to dos.99 grams on a daily basis, and 482 persons which have excretion in excess of 11 grams for every single day was as part of the category having removal away from grams or much more each day. In other countries, 235 people that have excretion of nine.00 to help you 9.99 g every single day and 112 individuals having excretion off 10 grams or maybe more everyday was in fact within the classification with removal from 8.00 to 8.99 grams a day. I bars imply 95% trust durations.
After adjusting for covariates, we found a significant positive association between estimated sodium excretion and systolic blood pressure (P<0.001 for trend) and between estimated sodium excretion and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001 for trend) ( Figure 2A and 2B ). For each 1-g increment in estimated sodium excretion, there was an increment of 1.46 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure (P<0.001) and an increment of 0.54 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001). After correcting for regression dilution bias and adjusting for covariates, we observed a steeper slope (a larger increment in blood pressure for a 1-g increment in estimated sodium excretion) for the association between estimated usual sodium excretion and blood pressure, with an increment of 2.11 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure per gram and an increment of 0.78 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure per gram (P<0.001 for both comparisons).